The biggest highlight of new energy cars is that it has changed the energy supply mode of traditional cars. The technology of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy is widely used in new energy cars. The engine is the most important application. In addition, many auto parts have also begun to use. The motor brings more convenience to people. For electric cars worldwide, the mainstream motors are permanent magnet synchronous motors, but there are also models that use AC asynchronous motors.
(1) Motor controller
A better automotive motor controller integrates microelectronic devices and power devices on the same chip, and becomes a power integrated circuit (PIC), commonly known as “intelligent power module” (IPM), whose purpose is to further reduce the size and Cost and improve its reliability. PIC can include power modules, control modules, protection modules, information transmission modules, and refrigeration modules.
The main problems in PIC synthesis are the insulation and cooling of high-voltage and low-voltage devices. However, in the future development, this technology is the most promising for electric car drive systems, the key lies in the integration and packaging of devices.
At present, electric car motor controllers are mostly in the form of power integrated circuits, and some are made with discrete components.
As shown in Figure 1, the electric car motor controller is composed of DSP (digital signal processing technology) motor control board, IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) drive circuit board, IGBT (IPM) module, current sensor, microcontroller, It is composed of isolation transformer.
The DSP receives instructions from the car controller and feeds back information, detects sensor information in the motor system, and generates inverter switching signals based on the instructions and sensor information.
The IGBT drive circuit board is used to receive the switching signal of the DSP and feedback related information, amplify the switching signal and drive the IGBT, and provide voltage isolation and protection functions.
The control power supply helps the DSP provide power; it provides a multi-channel isolated power cooling system for the drive circuit to help the power electronic module dissipate heat, provide support for the installation of controller components, and provide environmental protection for the controller.
The motor controller mainly realizes the following functions.
① Idle speed control (creeping).
②Control the forward and reverse of the motor to realize the forward and reverse of the car.
③Control energy feedback (conversion of alternating current to direct current).
④Standing on a slope (anti-rolling car).
③Communication and protection. Real-time status and fault detection, protection of the drive motor system and fault feedback.
(2) Application of motors in new energy cars
① Application of motor in engine
Compared with traditional cars, the biggest change for new energy cars is to change fuel-driven cars to electric drives. The purpose is to protect the environment and protect the few non-renewable resources left in the world. Some new energy cars use clean and renewable energy as their source of power. For example, ethanol produced from straw fermentation is used as energy. Ethanol is a clean energy and a renewable energy. It can be produced in large quantities in a short period of time, eliminating the worries of resource exhaustion. It is very suitable for the development trend of contemporary automobiles. Here we are No details will be given. The application of the electric motor in the starting system basically completely replaces the use of fuel. It drives the car in a more efficient, environmentally friendly and energy-saving way. At the same time, due to the particularity of the electric motor, it can be used in various parts of the car. This is an internal combustion engine. Unattainable. It not only meets the contemporary strong demand for automobiles, but also meets the protection requirements for the deteriorating environment, and also protects non-renewable resources. It is a multi-tasking thing. To put it simply, the use of electric motors on the engine is mainly to replace the internal combustion engine in the drive system, changing the traditional driving method of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy into electrical energy into mechanical energy to drive the car. At the same time, it uses its own advantages to play a role in other auto parts and becomes one of the most important parts of new energy cars.
②The application of the motor in the chassis
The application of the electric motor on the chassis is mainly in two aspects. The first is the application of the electric motor in the power steering system, and the other is the application of the automobile wheel anti-lock braking system. The power steering system of a car has always been a very special system, even in traditional cars. It is also operated by battery power generation, and in new energy cars, it simply uses electricity to work. As long as the torque of the motor output and the size of the electricity per unit time are controlled, the direction and speed of the power steering can be directly controlled. Compared with the traditional use of batteries as a driving force, this is obviously more simple and convenient, and it also provides a strong energy supply protection. The car’s anti-lock braking system prevents the wheels from locking due to the brakes being stepped too hard during the braking process. Emergency braking is often easy to cause fatal danger. Whether the anti-lock braking function of a car is perfect and effective is an important reference coefficient for judging the grade of a car. A common anti-lock braking device is to install a sensor on each wheel to detect the wheel speed and judge it through an intelligent method. What is the state of the car at this time, when the system judges that the car is in a state of locked wheels, it will automatically feed back to the corresponding components and the owner, and the car will take corresponding measures to prevent the wheels from locking up, which may lead to danger.
③Application of motor in auto parts
With the continuous development and innovation of science and technology, various parts of automobiles have also changed from manual operation to automatic control, such as electric window regulators, electric rearview mirrors, etc., as well as some traditional electric equipment, such as central locking devices. , And electric wipers are directly controlled by the motor system. Regarding electric window regulators, most cars have abandoned the traditional swing-handle lift windows, and use electric buttons to control the windows. The main structure of the button control windows is the electric motor and the reducer. The two cooperate with each other to manufacture Electric window regulator. The electric window regulator is not only beautiful and practical, but also not easy to distract the driver. Electric rearview mirrors change the operation mode of traditional rearview mirrors that need to manually change the direction to observe the rear situation. The electric rearview mirrors are controlled by a motor-based control system and can be controlled in the car through remote control. Rotate the direction, so that it will not delay normal car driving, but also can turn the rearview mirror to observe the situation behind the car at any time. It is simple and efficient, effectively reducing the danger caused by the driver’s attention on the rearview mirror and not paying attention to the abnormal situation ahead. happened. The central locking device is a device that can directly control the opening or locking of all doors in the driving position. The main purpose is to prevent people (especially children) from opening the doors without authorization or accidentally during the driving process, and opening the doors during driving. It is a very dangerous thing, and it is often easy to cause chain accidents. Therefore, it is very important to use an electric motor to enable the driver to have a device to control the closing of the doors of the entire car.